|ALTERNARIA (Air-borne) Colonies: grey, dark green, brown to black.
This is an outdoor mold, which frequently grows in textiles,
foodstuffs, and soils. The
black spots seen on tomatoes are usually of the alternaria mold specie.
Frequently found on condensed window frames; generally an outdoors
mold and appears when the weather is warm.
mold is found in damp conditions where the temperature is approximately 40
degrees Celsius, both indoor and outdoor.
Optimum growth requirements include a high water activity of the
substrate, which is more likely to occur during the winter months.
Some diseases associated with the aspergillus are farmers lung,
bakers asthma, and malt workers lung.
Inhalation of conidia and mycelium of aspergillus can lead to
several diseases, the severity of which depends on the host's immune
response. It is found in
soils, leaf, and plant litter, decaying vegetable and roots, bird
droppings, tobacco, and stored sweet potatoes.
BOTRYTIS This worldwide mold predominantly occurs in humid and sub‑tropical
regions. The conidiophores of
the mold usually cover the decayed tissues. It is seen as the grey mold on
cabbage, red clover, lettuce, sugar beet, beans, barley, wheat, onion, and
tomato. It is especially seen
in connection with soft fruits, e.g., Strawberries and grapes.
In the wine industry, the growth of botrytis on wine grapes has
been known to give an added effect to the bouquet of certain wines.
CEPHALOSPORIUM It is a mold found in decomposing vegetation, and it is a soil
inhabitant. It is also found in dust from textile plants, soil when
gardening, bathrooms, and damp old houses. A grey/green colour, it is also occasionally found in
patients sensitive to candida albicans.
|CLADOSPORIUM Of all the molds encountered in the air, this is the most frequent.
It is found most commonly on dying and dead plant substrates, especially
on leaves and stems of ferns, mosses, and desert and aquatic plants.
It is found in various soil types and on food items such as
cereals, cucumbers, tomatoes, and peaches.
It is also been found in fuel tanks, face creams, paints and
textiles. A moist, low damp
environment is most suitable for the cladosporium mold (low dense and
olive-green to olive-brown in colour). Found throughout the year and indoors.
CURVULARIA This mold is dark brown in colour with a velvety appearance.
It can be found in castor beans, cotton, rice, barley, wheat, and corn.
It seems to strive well in most tropical countries.
It may cause leaf spots and seeding blight.
This mold has worldwide distribution.
Found on soil, decaying plants, and fabrics.
It has also been isolated from cereals, fruits, polluted fresh
water, compost beds, insects, human skin, and sputum. Quite a lot of
airborne spores. Some Italian allergists rate it quite highly.
FUSARIUM This mold is
common soil fungus and is widely found on numerous
grasses and other plants.
It can cause plant diseases and is a major parasite of rice, sugar
cane, sorghum, and especially maize grains.
Occurs regularly on banana roots and other fruits and vegetable, e.g., tomato
and watermelon. Sporulates in
warm, wet weather.
Shares some of the same allergenic determinants as Penicillium and
This mold occurs seasonally and spores are released on dry, hot
days. It is a parasite of
cereals and grasses. Frequently
found on grains, grasses, sugar cane, soil, and textiles.
RACEMOSUS This mold
has worldwide distribution and is primarily a soil fungus but has been
found in horse manure, plant remains, grains, vegetables, and nuts. In
the tropics it is found at higher altitudes and often seen on soft
fruit, fruit juice and marmalade. Mucor
is also the dominating mold found in floor dust in houses.
This mold also has a velvety colony, which has blue green centres
with pale to bright yellow, vinaceous reverse and yellow
exudate. It has a fruity odour,
suggesting apples or pineapples.
It is found in the soil of citrus plantations and
has been isolated from decaying cabbage and barley
plants, stored seeds of
cereals, grapes, nuts, dried fruits, and fruit juices.
It is one of the most dominant
and important house molds; the indoor mold can be
readily seen on stale bread, citrus fruits, and apples.
It is frequently found in wine cellars.
Rubra A marginally fermentable red yeast (a group as large as the
white yeasts although less well known). Very common on decaying foods.
May occur in the gut. Found
in pollen counts
This is a yeast like fungus, which is found on living or dead
leaves. It is a pink to red
colour mold. It is usually an
airborne mold released during warm, damp weather, especially in the
mornings, and can reach extremely high airborne concentrations.
This mold is commonly found in different soils, dead plant tissues,
and potatoes. It grows
indoors in association with bio‑deterioration of wall paints, and
produces pink or purple colour spots.
This mold has also been isolated from moldy shower curtains.
This mold is commonly found on dead and decaying leaves, wooden
frames, saunas, refrigerator doors, and in the kitchen and bathroom.
It is grey in color and has been recorded on wheat seeds, barley,
oats, tomato and pecans.